I would state the obvious if I said that primes are special numbers. But what makes primality so special? Don Zagier, an eminent specialist, said:

*Upon looking at these numbers, one has the feeling of being in the presence of one of the inexplicable secrets of creation.*That's awesome, isn't it? In antiquity, the Greeks already tried to understand the patterns underpinning the prime numbers. A way to visualize those patterns is through prime number sieves. Eratosthenes is said to have proposed the first sieve, the Eratosthenes sieve. (Hey, have you noticed that Eratosthenes was born 2287 years ago? So we are in year 2287 of the Eratosthenian era. Also a prime number). But there are other sieves. More of that later.

Prime numbers occur in nature in cyclic processes. Imagine that, somewhere in the universe, there's a star with a huge number of planets, all of them having the same orbiting speed. They are numbered from 1 to N, planet n°1 being the inner planet and the diameters of their circular orbits are as following:

- The diameter of planet n°2's orbit is twice the diameter of planet n°1's orbit.
- The diameter of planet n°3's orbit is three times the diameter of planet n°1's orbit.
- The diameter of planet n°4's orbit is four times the diameter of planet n°1's orbit.
- And so on, the unit length being the diameter of planet n°1's orbit, the nth planet has an orbit of diameter n, n being an integer between 1 and N.

Imagine also that at some timestamp zero, all the planets are aligned at the same side of the star (yes I know, this is very improbable, but it's just a thought experiment). We define the orbital period of the first planet as unit time. "Prime times" occur when two and only two planets are aligned on the initial direction with the star: the outer planet than has a prime distance to the star (the closest planet being always planet n°1). I should make an animation to visualize this effect. As making an animation is very time-consuming, I looked for other ways to illustrate this principle and ended up with another sieve: a circle sieve. Instead of drawing concentric circles for the orbits, I shift each circle such that all are tangent at the origin (for example the location of the center of the star, see Figure 1). For each period of a planet, I successively copy its circle and place it tangentially to the right (see Figure 2 for the first periods of planet 1 and 2).

Now, as each planet is orbiting at the same speed, the first alignment along the initial direction will occur at timestamp 2. Planet 1 will have circled twice around the star and planet 2 will have circled once. Circles 1 and 2 touch at abscissa 2. Number 2 is a prime number. The next alignment on the axis will occur for planet 3. Circles 1 and 3 touch at abscissa 3 without circle 2 (see Figure 3). Number 3 is a prime number.

The next alignment will occur for planets 1, 2 and 4. Number 4 is not a prime. But number 5 is prime. We can see that easily if we draw only circles 2 and 3 (leaving out the unit circles), see Figure 4. Prime numbers can only occur at vacant places along the axis. The symmetries that show up along this axis help to design primality tests. Any prime number greater than 3 must be of the form 3*2

The succession of circles n°5 together with n°2 and 3 sieves out all primes between 5 and 7², see Figure 5.

I let you try it further with circles n°7. You will see patterns with concentric circles become more apparent. I like this geometric variant of Eratosthenes' sieve because symmetries can be caught with the eye and suggest prime generating formulas. For example, I came across two simple prime generating polynomials (which must have been noticed by other people because they are less powerful than Euler's P(n) =

Happy prime year!

Now, as each planet is orbiting at the same speed, the first alignment along the initial direction will occur at timestamp 2. Planet 1 will have circled twice around the star and planet 2 will have circled once. Circles 1 and 2 touch at abscissa 2. Number 2 is a prime number. The next alignment on the axis will occur for planet 3. Circles 1 and 3 touch at abscissa 3 without circle 2 (see Figure 3). Number 3 is a prime number.

The next alignment will occur for planets 1, 2 and 4. Number 4 is not a prime. But number 5 is prime. We can see that easily if we draw only circles 2 and 3 (leaving out the unit circles), see Figure 4. Prime numbers can only occur at vacant places along the axis. The symmetries that show up along this axis help to design primality tests. Any prime number greater than 3 must be of the form 3*2

*n*±1. This formula is a condensed form of the intersection of odd numbers (noted 2*n*+1) and non-multiples of 3 (noted 3n+{1,2}) and generates all primes between 3 and 5².The succession of circles n°5 together with n°2 and 3 sieves out all primes between 5 and 7², see Figure 5.

I let you try it further with circles n°7. You will see patterns with concentric circles become more apparent. I like this geometric variant of Eratosthenes' sieve because symmetries can be caught with the eye and suggest prime generating formulas. For example, I came across two simple prime generating polynomials (which must have been noticed by other people because they are less powerful than Euler's P(n) =

*n*² −*n*+ 41):n²+9n+1

This way of sieving has been described earlier and more extensively by physicist Imre Mikoss. Check his work at "n²+21n+1

*The Prime Numbers Hidden Symmetric Structure and its Relation to the Twin Prime Infinitude and an Improved Prime Number Theorem*".Happy prime year!

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ReplyDeleteHi Arjen, I really think you will like my website about prime numbers. I rediscovered the sieve of eratosthenes, which I hadn't heard of before, but I took the visualizations to the next level with 145 families of stacked circles, and some animations of how the sieve changes from 0 to 20.000 in under a minute. In the second tab I explain how I discovered a couple of formulas that count primes and twin primes with an error of about 10% up to 700 billion. Here is the site:

ReplyDeletehttp://www.sievesofchaos.com/

Let me know what you think!

Hi Carlos,

ReplyDeleteYou have a great site. I wonder why I didn't find it along with the other work of Imre Mikoss. You definitely carried out work on this circles' sieve much further out.

Thanks!

Arjen

Arjen, I was wondering a couple of days ago. What is the method for obtaining the polynomials n²+9n+1 and n²+21n+1. Could you explain how you did this?

ReplyDeleteThanks!

Carlos

Hi Carlos,

ReplyDeleteI need to check my notes but I think I just tried some polynomials. I'll have a better look.

Arjen